Below are the potential symptoms associated with adenomyosis:

  1. painful menstruation, also known as dysmenorrhea
  2. heavy menstrual bleeding, also known as menorrhagia
  3. dyspareunia (painful sex)
  4. severe uterine cramps
  5. pain in the pelvic area
  6. Abdominal pressure and bloating


While the exact causes of adenomyosis have not been definitively determined according to research, the following factors, identified by experienced medical professionals, are among the commonly observed causes of adenomyosis:

1. Fetal development

Adenomyosis can potentially develop in an individual during the early stages of fetal development when the uterus is initially forming.

2. Inflammation

The risk of developing adenomyosis may be heightened by inflammation in the uterus following uterine surgery.

3. Uterine Injuries

Adenomyosis can be caused by uterine injuries, including those occurring during cesarean delivery or other surgical procedures.

Risk Factors

The following are the risk factors associated with adenomyosis:

1. Estrogen

Factors that can increase the duration of estrogen exposure, and consequently the risk of adenomyosis, may include menopause, a higher body mass index (BMI), or previous use of hormonal contraceptives.

2. Age

Adenomyosis can impact individuals of any age, but it is often not diagnosed until during or after menopause, particularly when a hysterectomy is performed.

3. Pregnancy

Many women diagnosed with adenomyosis have a history of multiple pregnancies.

4. Uterine Surgery

Undergoing previous uterine surgeries, such as cesarean delivery, can potentially elevate the risk of developing adenomyosis.


Diagnosing adenomyosis typically involves obtaining a comprehensive medical history from the patient and conducting a pelvic examination. Primarily, it is the responsibility of the doctor to perform these initial steps. If the doctor suspects adenomyosis after assessing all relevant information and conducting the examination, they may recommend further tests, which can include:

1. Ultrasound

This procedure enables the doctor to examine areas of the uterine lining tissue that have infiltrated the muscular wall of the uterus.

2. MRI

Doctors frequently employ an MRI scan to visualize the inner muscle layer of the uterus.

3. Endometrial Biopsy

Occasionally, the doctor may perform a biopsy by obtaining a small sample of the endometrial tissue inside the uterus for testing purposes. While this procedure may not directly diagnose adenomyosis, it can help rule out other potential causes of the individual’s symptoms.


Treatment options may be considered for individuals who do not plan to conceive, are not in the childbearing stage, or are approaching menopause. If you are experiencing symptoms of adenomyosis, the following treatments should be considered:

1. Anti-inflammatory Medications or Pain Relief Drugs

Pain and discomfort can be alleviated by using medications such as ibuprofen.

2. Medications

Symptoms can be relieved by taking oral contraceptive pills, using progestin intrauterine devices, or receiving injections such as Depo-Provera. To address the condition, doctors may also prescribe gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or antagonists, typically on a short-term basis, as they can induce temporary or false menopause.

3. Uterine Artery Embolization

A procedure known as uterine artery embolization involves the insertion of a tube into a major artery in the groin, followed by injecting small particles into the affected area. This technique aims to block the blood supply to the affected area, leading to the shrinkage of adenomyosis and reduced associated symptoms.

4. Hysterectomy

The only definitive treatment for adenomyosis is the complete removal of the uterus, known as a hysterectomy. However, this option may not be suitable for individuals who desire future pregnancies unless all other therapies have been unsuccessful and they prioritize pain relief over the ability to conceive.

When To See a Doctor

The initial and crucial step is to consult a doctor when suspecting adenomyosis. Self-medication is not recommended. It is important to seek medical advice if you are experiencing heavy or painful periods or any of the symptoms mentioned earlier.

However, individuals who are not attempting to conceive or are not experiencing any symptoms may not require treatment.


Adenomyosis is not inherently life-threatening but can cause significant discomfort and potential complications until menopause, when the condition typically subsides.

If there is suspicion of adenomyosis or endometriosis, it is advisable to seek medical guidance. Numerous treatments are available to help alleviate the symptoms associated with these conditions.