Adjectives and Adverbs
All eight parts of speech perform their function differently. Just as the noun is a naming word, the pronoun is used in place of a noun to avoid repetition, adverbs and adjectives perform various functions too. Adjectives and adverbs work together in most sentences.
Most people have difficulties distinguishing them. Therefore, it is pertinent to x-ray the two (adjective and adverb).
Definitions of Adjective
An adjective is a word that describes or qualifies a noun or a pronoun.
- She is a beautiful girl.
- Blessing is the tallest girl in her class.
- The handsome boy is getting married next week.
- Bimbo has long hair.
Musa is a short boy.
In the sentences, beautiful, tallest, handsome, long and short are adjectives. They describe the nouns and pronouns in the sentences.
Formation of Adjectives
Apart from normal words like beautiful, handsome, long, short, etc, most adjectives are formed through the addition of suffixes.
Words that end with -able like readable, remarkable, honourable, capable, accountable, acceptable, unacceptable, passable, countable, uncountable, able, comfortable, adorable, lovable, measurable, payable, sizable.
(a)If the signs were readable, we would not miss the road.
(b) That occasion will remain remarkable in my memory.
(c) Ngozi is capable and efficient.
Words that end with -ible like edible, feasible, audible, permissible, responsible, flexible, terrible, horrible, reversible, irreversible, incredible, legible.om
(a) Ripe fruits are edible.
(b) Chemical changes are usually irreversible.
(c) Physical changes are reversible.
(d) The keynote speaker was very audible.
(e) The doctor’s handwriting is legible.
Words ending with -ish like foolish, boyish, girlish
(a) The boy is foolish.
(b) Ugo acted boyish.
Words that end with -ous like meritious, delicious,
(a) The party jellof rice was so delicious.
Words that end with -less like childless, careless, heartless, mannerless
(a) The couple have been childless for two years now.
(b) How can you be so heartless?
(c) It was careless of him to have left the door open.
Definition of Adverb
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective or any other adverb in a sentence. It tells us more about the action of a verb or how the action denoted by the verb took place, when it took place and how it took place. Examples of adverbs that modifies verbs are:
(a) The old lady walked slowly.
(b) She dances well.
(c) My mother visits me occasionally.
(d) He walked sluggishly to his sit.
(e) The dancer danced well in the competition.
In the sentences, well, occasionally and sluggisly are the adverbs. They modifies the verbs.
Examples of Adverbs that modifies adjectives.
(a) The pen is very bad.
Very is an adverb that modifies the adjective bad.
Adverbs that modifies other adverbs
(a) The boy fell quite unexpectedly.
Quite is an adverb that modifies another adverb unexpectedly.
(b) The old man walked very slowly.
Very is an adverb that modifies another adverb slowly.
(c) The dancers danced very well in the competition.
Very is an adverb that modifies well which is another adverb.
Formation of Adverbs : The majority of adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the adjective. Examples are: quick – quickly, brave – bravely, happy – happily, slow – slowly, quiet – quietly, angry – angrily, bad – badly, clear – clearly, bitter – bitterly, easy – easily, heavy – heavily, foolish – foolishly, loud – loudly, serious – seriously, dangerous.
Adverbs may be classified according to their use, into the following:
(1) Adverb of Time – It tells when the verb it modifies took place. Some examples are before, now, since, yesterday, twice, already, soon, annually, seldom.
(a)We have met before.
(b) I am going home now.
(c) The young man came yesterday.
(2) Adverb of Place – It tells where the verb it modifies was performed. Words that denote are here, there, everywhere, nowhere,etc.
(a) They came here yesterday.
(3) Adverb of Manner – It answers the question how. It tells how the action of the verb is done. badily, easily, slowly, well.
(a)The dancers danced well.
(b) She sang beautifully.
(c) The house is easily accessible by road.
(4) Adverb of Degree – This adverb tells the extent the action performed by the verb was done. It describes how small, how large, how much and to what degree the action was unleashed. Some examples are almost, much, only, very, rather, soon, far, etc.
Example: I ran very fast.
The most commonest thing about adjectives and adverbs is the level of comparison. They are compared using comparative and superlative.