Dyslexia – Things To Know About Dyslexia
Dyslexia, the most prevalent learning disability in children, continues to affect individuals throughout their lives. The severity of dyslexia can range from mild to severe. Early intervention is crucial for better outcomes in managing dyslexia. Nevertheless, it is never too late for individuals with dyslexia to enhance their language skills through learning and support.
Dyslexia, an enduring condition, has been subject to various definitions over time. One such definition was provided by the World Federation of Neurologists in 1968, which described dyslexia as a condition observed in children who, despite conventional classroom instruction, struggle to acquire language skills in reading, writing, and spelling that align with their intellectual capabilities.
Dyslexia is a distinct learning disability with a neurobiological basis. It is characterized by challenges in accurately and fluently recognizing words, as well as poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties primarily stem from a deficiency in the phonological aspect of language, often appearing unexpectedly in relation to other cognitive abilities and despite adequate classroom instruction.
As a result, individuals with dyslexia may also experience difficulties in reading comprehension and may have limited exposure to reading materials, which can hinder the development of vocabulary and background knowledge.
What Causes Dyslexia?
Children affected by dyslexia face challenges in acquiring reading skills, despite receiving conventional instruction, possessing average intelligence, and having sufficient motivation and learning opportunities. The condition is believed to stem from a difficulty in the brain’s processing of phonemes, which are the smallest units of speech that differentiate words from one another. Dyslexia is not attributed to vision or hearing impairments, nor is it caused by mental retardation, brain damage, or lack of intelligence.
The causes of dyslexia differ depending on the type. For primary dyslexia, significant research is centred around hereditary factors. Recently, specific genes have been identified as potential contributors to the signs and symptoms of dyslexia. This research holds great significance as it may enable the identification of children who are at risk of developing dyslexia, facilitating early educational interventions and leading to improved outcomes.
What Are The Different Types Of Dyslexia?
Below are the three main types of dyslexia:
1. Primary Dyslexia
This is the most prevalent form of dyslexia, characterized by a dysfunction rather than physical damage to the left side of the brain, specifically the cerebral cortex. It remains consistent throughout an individual’s life and does not naturally improve with age.
The severity of this type of dyslexia varies among individuals, and those who receive appropriate educational interventions typically achieve academic success throughout their lives.
However, unfortunately, some individuals continue to face significant challenges with reading, writing, and spelling into adulthood. Primary dyslexia is often inherited through family genes or can occur due to new genetic mutations. It is more commonly observed in boys than in girls.
2. Secondary Or Developmental Dyslexia
Developmental dyslexia, a type of dyslexia, arises from issues in brain development during the early stages of fetal development. As the child grows and matures, the effects of developmental dyslexia tend to lessen. It is worth noting that developmental dyslexia is more prevalent among boys.
3. Trauma Dyslexia
Acquired dyslexia typically manifests following a brain trauma or injury affecting the specific region responsible for reading and writing functions. It is a relatively uncommon occurrence among the current school-age population.
4. Visual Dyslexia
Visual processing disorder sometimes referred to as “visual dyslexia “, denotes a condition where the brain fails to accurately interpret visual signals.
5. Auditory Dyslexia
“Auditory processing disorder” is a term that has been employed to describe a condition in which there are difficulties in the brain’s processing of sounds and speech. This condition is akin to visual processing disorder, where issues arise in the interpretation of visual signals.
“dysgraphia ” refers to the challenges a child encounters in gripping and controlling a pencil to make accurate markings on paper.
Signs And Symptoms Of Dyslexia
Most persons may not possess the ability to definitively identify dyslexia in a child. However, they may observe initial indications that warrant further evaluation by a psychologist or other healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis of the condition. Some signs and symptoms that may be observed include:
- Delayed early language development.
- Challenges in distinguishing between similar sounds or segmenting words.
- Slow acquisition of new vocabulary.
- Difficulties in accurately copying from a board or book.
- Struggles with learning reading, writing, and spelling skills.
- Inability to recall information, even from familiar videos or storybooks.
- Issues with spatial relationships that may manifest beyond the classroom, such as poor coordination in sports or games.
- Common difficulties in distinguishing left from right, often without established hand dominance.
Auditory Problems In Dyslexia
- Remembering or comprehending auditory information.
- Recalling sequences or multiple instructions simultaneously.
- Missing parts of words or sentences, resulting in speech that sounds peculiar.
- Using incorrect words or substituting similar words.
- Experiencing difficulty in finding the right words to express their thoughts, despite knowing what they want to say.
Other Signs Of Dyslexia
- Withdrawal and a sense of depression.
- Acting out behaviour to divert attention from their learning difficulties.
- Strained interactions with peers and siblings, affect their self-esteem.
- Loss of interest in school-related activities and a perception of being unmotivated or lazy.
- Emotional symptoms are equally significant as academic challenges and necessitate equal attention.