Kinetic Energy – Law of conversion of energy and kinetic theory

Kinetic Energy – A Brief Study On Kinetic Energy

Work initially means any kind of exercise that utilizes the use of physical effort, while power is simply brute strength. On plain ground, this just refers to the effort of a student burning the night candle reading, or a soldier standing still for hours.

these words are defined collectively, we see each of them having a similar meaning but science sees It as otherwise.

Work

This is the product of force and distance moved in the direction of the force. This simply says that work is performed when a force strides the body in its direction.

Work is measured in units called joules.

Force is anything that compels a body at rest to move or a body in current motion to halt or a body In a uniform motion to deviate.

Power

Power relates very well to both work and energy because before it can be achieved the two have to be in possession. Power is the ability to carry out a task. It can be expressed as:

Power= work done /time taken

The measurement unit of power Is in watts.

Energy

The subsisting strain of ability that influences power, there are two different forms of energy divided into subdivisions and they are;

  1. Kinetic energy (K.E)

This is the energy the body possesses because of its current motion, e.g water current, wind, a rolling ball, a moving vehicle.

  1. Potential energy (P.E)

This is the energy the body has because of its position above ground level. For example a pendulum ball at rest.

Law of conversion of energy

This law of conversion states that energy can’t be destroyed nor created but can be transferred from one form to another, e.g a pendulum at rest has potential energy but when an external or internal force causes it to move it sets in motion changing from P.E to K.E.

Energy is transferred when work is done.

Work can’t be done without the energy being transferred. The amount of work you’ve done is proportional to the energy being used.

Ever heard of kinetic theory?

This when the nature and behavior of matter are explained in terms of assumptions. Of course, to achieve such, we’ll have to venture deep into the rabbit hole and explain the behaviors in solids, liquids, and gases, and also the scientific processes that transpire In occurrences like melting, evaporation, boiling, condensation, freezing, and sublimation.

The kinetic theory of matter characterizes the physical behavior of matter when subjected to energy. The assumptions below summarize it all.

  • matter is the composition of tiny fractions which are constantly in motion possessing kinetic energy.
  • an increased temperature results in an increase in motion of particles and hence an expansion in the kinetic energy of particles.

-the increase in kinetic brings about a change in state.

The configuration of states of matter

Matter is anything that has form and occupies space

-Structure of solids.

The particles in solids are tightly packed and held together by forces of cohesion or strong attractive forces. This force is what holds particles of solids together in a fixed standpoint restricting any movement.

The particles nonetheless vibrate about their fixed positions due to their kinetic energy. Since the particles can’t move it takes a definite shape and volume making it impossible to compress.

-Structure of liquid.

Liquid particles possess more kinetic energy than solid. Making it very possible to move, but they still exist under the force of cohesion which prevents their movement, hence liquid retains a fixed volume but no definite shape. It takes the shape of whatever object it is contained in.

-Structure of gases.

The particles in gases have much more energy than solid and liquid, the force of cohesion in the gas are shaky and miniature, therefore the particles move about in all directions at an incredible speed, it has no definite shape nor volume but can take the shape of a container.

Kinetic theory- explanation of some occurrence

Boiling:

Boiling is the process by which liquids are evaporated into a gaseous state at a particular temperature. That very temperature is referred to as “boiling point”.

Kinetic theory: particles are in continuous motion in water. When heat is supplied to water in a beaker, the particles gain more kinetic energy, gains more speed, and experience more frequent collisions. At a particular temperature, the mass of water builds up to the surface and particles start to escape into vapor. At this stage, water has reached Its boiling point.

Vapour pressure equates Its external pressure. That can only be possible when evaporation takes place at the boiling point of a liquid.

Evaporation

This is the process by which liquids escape into the atmosphere information of vapor at any temperature.

Kinetic theory;

When liquid particles are heated, the particles acquire energy and moves closer to the liquid surface. They break away from the compelling forces and pull back into space in form of vapor. Evaporation is chaperoned by boiling.

Factors that affect evaporation.

  • evaporation of liquids takes place at all temperatures and the rate of evaporation increases when the temperature increase.

-the greater the surface area of a liquid exposed, the faster the evaporation.

-evaporation can also be influenced by the nature of the liquid. Eg. The rate of evaporation in kerosene is more rapid than that of water.

-Dry wind influence evaporation, unlike timid air.

Difference between evaporation and boiling.

 

Boiling

 evaporation
A process in which liquid changes to gaseous by boiling. A process in which liquid changes its state to gaseous without hitting boiling point.
It occurs at a definite temperature. Different liquids have different boiling points. It occurs at all temperatures.
Kinetic energy is needed. The surrounding energy is enough
Bubbles are produced when heated no bubbles are formed during heating
The boiling process is rapid evaporation is a snail
Boiling happens throughout the liquid Evaporation takes place only from the surface of the liquid that is exposed.

Melting.

Melting is a situation where a solid material changes to a liquid state at a steady temperature. The constant temperature at which the solid melts and turns to liquid is called the melting point.

Kinetic theory;

Solid particles are held In a fixed position(mass, shape, and volume), by a binding force. When a solid object is heated, flames are obtained as a result of the solid particles vibrating. The temperature of the solid substance begins to rise until it reaches the melting point where it becomes unchanged.

At this juncture, the force of the vibration overwhelms the binding force and makes the solid structure collapse, thus reverting the fixed position to an uncertain one where movement is enabled, thus solid becomes liquid.

Condensation.

This Is when gas changes to liquid as a result of cooling. Kinetic energy is not gained in this process instead it is lost from the gaseous substance.

Kinetic theory:

The kinetic energy records great reduction to the point it breaks under the binding force; then the particles are closely pulled together and change to liquid.

Freezing.

This is the process by which a liquid changes to a solid as a result of cooling.

Kinetic theory

Freezing involves the removal of heat energy, thereby causing the temperature of the liquid to drop and kinetic energy Is mislaid, such that the particles of the liquid substance are closely packed jointly because the kinetic energy failed to resist and ended up breaking the binding force. The liquid becomes the binding force so that the liquid substance becomes solid.

Freezing point is a thing, it’s the temperature at which a liquid changes to solid.

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