Programming Languages – Top  9 Programming Languages for Internet of Things (IoT) Development


Programming Languages – Top  9 Programming Languages for Internet of Things (IoT) Development

“Numerous developers are constantly enhancing their skills to remain up-to-date and secure their professional prospects, giving them an advantage over their competitors. If you aspire to succeed in the IoT app development industry, it is important for you, as a developer, to have knowledge of multiple programming languages.

As the IoT progresses, the task of identifying the most suitable technologies for different projects may become more intricate. Likewise, gauging the popularity of programming languages without understanding the specific requirements can pose challenges.”

Ultimately, endeavouring to ascertain the prevailing IoT programming languages among millions of IoT developers adds significant complexity to the task. Here are some programming languages commonly used in the realm of IoT:

1. Java

Java stands out as the predominant programming language for developing IoT applications. In 2019, it held the top spot as the most widely adopted programming language, accounting for an impressive 16.61% overall score. The influence of Java is further underscored by its usage in powering nearly three billion devices.

The popularity of Java can be attributed, in part, to its “write once, run anywhere” capability. This means that developers can write their software code once and deploy it on any device that supports Java, eliminating the need for extensive modifications or adaptations.

Moreover, due to its object-oriented nature, Java enables the creation of programs for both cloud and edge nodes. This makes it an ideal programming language for IoT development, as it offers extensible functionalities and a vast array of libraries.

Java SE Embedded expands the possibilities by allowing developers to deploy code to highly compact computing devices and offers more advanced features compared to Java ME (Micro Edition). By leveraging the latest capabilities of the Java 8 platform, developers can seamlessly transfer code to miniature embedded cards.

2. C Programming Language

This programming language is well-known among all contemporary developers. Its popularity stems from its user-friendly nature. Despite its occasionally intricate syntax and potential for errors, the C language continues to be the preferred choice for numerous low-level engineers, especially those with previous hardware expertise.

The language offers the flexibility to conduct multiple tests by modifying different sections of the code, enabling developers to achieve optimal performance on low-end devices. Every element in the stack can be reversed, and values in the stack can be accessed individually. However, due to the absence of numerous safety measures in the C language, it is advisable to minimize errors and mistakes.

For many Chief Technology Officers (CTOs), C is the preferred language for devices with limited resources, such as a basic task scheduler coded in C. Additionally, C is utilized in more sophisticated and larger-scale devices. However, in such scenarios, Java is gaining popularity as an alternative choice.

3. C ++

If there is a distinct advantage that sets C++ apart from C, it lies in its computational capabilities. As a result, C++ serves as an excellent catalyst for preprocessing C code. By augmenting the processing power of C, C++ enables the execution of higher-level languages. However, it should be noted that C++ is a more intricate language that presents multiple opportunities for errors. Nevertheless, it remains a favoured choice among programmers.

C++ excels in the realm of Linux applications and embedded programming due to its capability to establish abstractions and object layers. It offers robust support for integrating with various other languages like C#, Python, Java, and more.

4. Python

Python is widely adopted as a popular programming language for IoT product development, primarily due to its straightforward syntax and ease of understanding. As an interpreted language, Python seamlessly integrates with object-oriented, structured, and functional programming paradigms.

Developers have the flexibility to choose their preferred language for small devices that possess ample memory and processing capabilities, and Python has gained significant popularity in this context. Its suitability for IoT programming lies in its simplicity, making it easy to learn, and its extensive community support.

Additionally, Python finds extensive application in various domains, including administrative tasks, and is commonly used as a programming language for educational purposes in schools. For relatively straightforward projects that do not require significant computational power, valuable tools can be developed using the same libraries utilized in educational settings.

Moreover, specific Python versions are specifically designed for smaller devices. An example of such is MicroPython, which is a compact microcontroller capable of running Python directly on hardware without an additional operating system. It offers a low-level operating system that facilitates control over a diverse range of electronic projects.

5. JavaScript

This language serves as the foundation for all the programs that enable interaction with the Internet. Although it is not typically classified as a conventional programming language, this scripting language is utilized by HTML programs, web applications, and browsers.

While JavaScript seems to have certain similarities with the language library of Java and incorporates elements from languages like C and Python, it ultimately stands on its own as a distinct entity. One of the notable features of JavaScript is its ability to ensure compatibility across various devices. Its extensive adoption in contemporary programming practices is also worth acknowledging.

In the present day, Node.js, which is a specialized variant of JavaScript with a focus on serving as a hub and server, emerges as a highly suitable option for receiving and transmitting data between sensors and hubs in the IoT context. One significant advantage is that developers who are already familiar with JavaScript do not need to acquire a new programming language before embarking on IoT development endeavours.

6. Swift

Among the languages mentioned earlier, Swift distinguishes itself in a unique way. While the other programming languages can be utilized for developing IoT applications across different platforms such as websites, smartphones, and various devices, Swift is specifically designed for creating IoT apps exclusively for iOS devices.

Swift adheres to Apple’s design principles, enabling developers to build IoT applications that meet Apple’s stringent standards. It boasts qualities such as speed, safety, and a reduced likelihood of errors, along with a wide array of programming patterns at developers’ disposal.

For those solely targeting iOS devices in their IoT application development endeavours, this programming language stands as the optimal choice. It is widely regarded as one of the easiest programming languages to learn, thanks to its straightforward syntax and ease of writing. As Swift continues to gain popularity, ambitious IoT developers are encouraged to adopt it without delay.


When we contemplate the enduring popularity of PHP on the internet, it leads us to question why it remains a popular choice for IoT development. Nevertheless, PHP excels as a server language for managing microservices.

Interestingly, PHP continues to garner considerable attention in the IoT domain. Many Raspberry Pi developers are actively exploring the development of a comprehensive LAMP stack on Linux, consisting of Apache, MySQL, and PHP. Their goal is to transform the lowest level of the internet into a fully functional web server, aiming to shift paradigms and expand PHP’s role in IoT applications.

Streamlining development becomes easier by considering the establishment of a LAMP stack on a Raspberry Pi with sufficient processing capacity. This approach enables the seamless deployment of all the server-side code that has been developed over the past two decades onto a small sensor device.

8. Go

Due to its diverse array of functionalities and advantages, this emerging programming language is rapidly becoming a sought-after choice in the field of IoT application development. One notable aspect is Go’s ability to generate optimized code, making it well-suited for tasks that involve small computing devices with limited power and memory resources.

Additionally, Go exhibits exceptional concurrency, allowing it to efficiently handle numerous data streams, both routing and processing them concurrently. This concurrency capability empowers Go to handle a significant volume of asynchronous data streams simultaneously. Furthermore, developers who wish to learn to Go will find that it offers a relatively short learning curve, as the language is designed to be straightforward and user-friendly.

9. Rust

According to knowledgeable engineers, C and C++ are widely regarded as the most prevalent programming languages for IoT projects. These languages are extensively employed worldwide due to their robust memory management capabilities and runtime features. However, there is another programming language that bears striking similarities to the aforementioned ones and is being lauded as a viable alternative: Rust.

Rust offers developers the opportunity to leverage the advantages of C and C++ while enabling a slightly faster workflow. It is highly regarded as an excellent programming language suitable for both beginners and experienced professionals. This is due to its comprehensive documentation, helpful error messages, and dependable compiler, which collectively contribute to a positive development experience.


Certainly, there is a general agreement regarding the leading programming languages for IoT, although each of them brings its own distinct advantages and applications. Java, recognized as the most prevalent language for IoT programming, offers versatility by being applicable in diverse contexts, including backend systems, and mobile applications, as well as serving as a foundation for gateways and cloud computing.

The C programming language holds significant importance in the realm of embedded IoT devices, while C++ emerges as a favoured option for more advanced Linux implementations. Python, on the other hand, shines as an excellent choice for data-intensive applications.

While Java remains the most popular language for developing IoT applications, JavaScript and Python closely trail behind in specific sub-domains. However, it is evident across the internet that IoT development is a multilingual landscape, and this trend is expected to persist in the future.

Jael Okwuchukwu
Jael Okwuchukwu
I am Okwuchukwu Jael, a writer, educator, and musician from Enugu State. Teaching, both academic and musical, is a passion of mine, and I specialize as a Western pianist. Currently, I am employed as a blogger at Writer's King LTD, combining my love for writing and desire to share knowledge with a broader audience.


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