Town planning -Types and Importance of town planning
This is the arrangement of buildings, roads, pathways, and other facilities required in the layout of the land area of a town. Town planning helps to demarcate boundaries for structures and areas for facilities of present and future development of the landmass of a town.
It controls and shows the way houses should be built, the width of the roads, and its accessibility to where schools or companies should be situated.
Importance of town planning
It brings beauty to a town.
It supports easy access and the location of buildings.
It helps the town authority keep track of the rate of development in the town.
It helps to avoid conflicts as land disputes and property trespassing properties or personal space encroachment between individuals
Town planning helps in allocation and preserves the best and a suitable portion of land for farming or company building. This promotes development (transition from a local town to an urban area) and innovation.
Town planning helps to protect boundaries and important facilities or buildings of a town. It ensures that buildings are not randomly demolished.
For town planning effective town planning, the right personnel must be employed for their professional experiences; civil engineers, architects, real estate managers, geographers, urban or city planners, all alike must be actively involved.
For proper tow planning, the following must be taken into consideration:
Current population and projected population.
Space and arrangement for houses, hospitals, schools, companies, banks, and other infrastructures, among also open spaces.
Effect of job opportunities.
The geographical area of the land
Then the plan should be flexible. Not rigid to alter.
Types of Town Planning
Urban Planning: this type of planning is structured in a way that the projection of the plan is a modernized urban city. The goal of the plan is to develop the area of the town into a city.
Land –Use planning: this type of planning is done in consideration of the available land area. The land space determines the project work done. It may only include important facilities and buildings like domestic houses, schools, and companies. If a land mass is very large then other factors such as recreational centers and roads could be considered.
Urban Revitalization: this type of planning is aimed at improving the development of a declining town, city, or stagnant area.
It involves locating areas in the town with potentials for development and building them, improving and introducing new facilities that would attract individuals either for the purpose of visitation, sight-seeing, or relocation. Urban revitalization involves land use planning as some buildings may be demolished and the use of some land altered.
Master planning: this is a type of planning which is concerned with the building and development of undeveloped land. A fresh and unused landmass. It is used for Greenfield development projects. This type of planning is projected toward the building of a modernized mega-city with all available facilities and infrastructures.
Economic development: this type of planning focuses on locating areas with economic potentials and building them.
It aims at identifying areas that could be used for industrial activities and giving them out at a low price to companies which will, in turn, cause rapid development for such an area as jobs are created, business is opened, workers and their families would relocate close by, gas stations, fuel station, shopping malls, and cafeterias would be built.
Environmental planning: this is planning a town to minimize environmental population. Elements considered here must be one that enhances the sustainability of the environment.
Infrastructural planning: This deals with the development of infrastructures in the town. It focuses on the improvement of facilities such as banks, schools, roads, and hospitals.
Certain factors reflect a town that has been properly planned. They include;
Houses are organized and not built at random locations.
Road uniformity, well-constructed drainage, and streetlights.
Specific areas would be dedicated to certain infrastructures, like rows of banks, shopping malls, farmlands, companies. These are not built in the mix of domestic houses.
Preservation and maintenance of the environment (especially the trees)
Strict maintenance culture of infrastructures and renovation of facilities.
Readily qualified personnel whose duty is to ensure that rules and regulations concerning buildings and personal development by individuals are adhered to.