What is Logos? – Meaning, Types And 6 Examples
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For all literature enthusiasts eager to understand the meaning of logos, this blog post offers a comprehensive explanation with additional examples. Make sure to read till the end to enhance your understanding.
What is logos?
Logos, pronounced as loh-goes, refers to a rhetorical strategy involving logical reasoning to appeal to an audience’s sense of logic. It is a persuasive technique that aims to convince the audience through logical and reasonable arguments.
Logos is one of the three Aristotelian appeals, along with ethos (ethics) and pathos (emotion). Writers employ these appeals to persuade their audience and support their arguments. While ethos focuses on establishing credibility and pathos appeals to emotions, logos rely on logical reasoning to make a compelling case.
Types Of Logos
They are commonly two types of Logos, namely inductive and deductive reasoning;
Inductive reasoning is a type of logical thinking that involves making general conclusions based on specific observations or evidence. It begins by examining specific instances or examples and then uses them to form broader generalizations or theories.
Inductive reasoning is effective because it relies on empirical evidence and real-world observations to support arguments.
Deductive reasoning begins by establishing a general premise or theory and applying it to specific instances or examples to derive specific conclusions. The objective of deductive reasoning is to demonstrate that if the general premise holds true, then the specific conclusion must also be true.
How to Use Logos in Writing
- After identifying your main argument, collect pertinent evidence.
- Organize your writing logically, ensuring each paragraph or section presents a coherent argument.
- Demonstrate how the evidence supports your claims and explain its relevance.
- Present your ideas clearly and comprehensibly for the readers to follow.
- Address potential counterarguments.
- Maintain an objective tone and refrain from using emotional language. When appealing to logic, focus on presenting the facts without bias.
Examples of Logos in action
- “Lovelyn is mortal. Therefore, all humans are mortal.”
- A lawyer presenting a case in court and using legal precedents, statutes, and logical reasoning to convince the judge and jury of their client’s innocence or guilt.
Examples of Logos in Literature
- In Arthur Miller’s “The Crucible,” John Proctor’s speech to the court about his affair with Abigail Williams is a logical plea for justice, attempting to expose the truth and save innocent lives.
- In Fyodor Dostoevsky’s “Crime and Punishment,” the protagonist, Raskolnikov, engages in a philosophical debate with himself, using logical arguments to justify his plan to commit a crime.
- Iago, the antagonist in William Shakespeare’s play Othello, employs logical reasoning to instill uncertainty in Othello’s thoughts regarding his wife’s potential affair with Cassio by highlighting Desdemona’s previous betrayal of her father to marry Othello; Iago strategically presents an argument that he knows will appear rational to Othello.“Oh, beware, my lord, of jealousy!
It is the green-eyed monster which doth mock
The meat it feeds on …
Who, certain of his fate, loves not his wronger,
But oh, what damnèd minutes tells he o’er
Who dotes, yet doubts—suspects, yet soundly loves …
She did deceive her father, marrying you …
She loved them most …
I humbly do beseech you of your pardon
For too much loving you …”
Examples of Logos in Politics
- “The United States of America, right now, has the strongest, most durable economy in the world. We’re in the middle of the longest streak of private-sector job creation in history. More than 14 million new jobs, the strongest two years of job growth since the ‘90s, an unemployment rate cut in half. Our auto industry just had its best year ever. That’s just part of a manufacturing surge that’s created nearly 900,000 new jobs in the past six years. And we’ve done all this while cutting our deficits by almost three-quarters.”In this instance, Obama relies on the use of logic, appealing to logos, to persuade his audience that, as the President, he has actively implemented measures that have positively influenced the growth and progress of the nation.