Examples of Solutions
What is a Solution?
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more components in which the size of the particle is smaller than 1nm. It is divided into two components which are solvents and solute.
What is a solvent?
A solvent is a component that dissolves other components. These solvents are in the form of liquids like water.
What is a solute
A solute is a substance that dissolves in a solvent, examples ice.
Properties of solutions
The different properties of a Solution are listed below :
• The particles are invisible to human eyes.
• The components of a mixture can not be separated using filtration.
• It is a homogenous mixture
• The particles are so minute, having a diameter less than 1nm
• The solutes are inseparable from the mixture.
The concentration of a Solution
A concentration is the amount of solute contained in a given solution. The amount of solute and solvent in a given solution is never the same. A solution can either be concentrated, diluted or saturated; depending on the amount of solute present.
The concentration of solute = Amount of solute /Amount of solution
Examples of solutions
Here we are going to consider nine(9) examples of solutions.
• Saturated solution
• Supersaturated solution
• Aqueous solution
• Concentrated solution
• Isotonic solution
• Unsaturated solution
• Dilute solution
• Hypertonic solution
• Hypotonic solution
A saturated solution is a solution in which further addition of solute is not required to the solvent, meaning that the solvent can no longer dissolve the solute at a defined temperature
A supersaturated solution is a solution which contains an excess amount of solute in a solvent. The dissolution of the solute is carried out at high temperature or pressure. In the end, the solution always leaves crystals of solute at the bottom of the container through a process called precipitation.
This kind of solution demands special conditions for it to occur. It is advantageous in the sense that the solution is subjected to heat to increase solubility for more solute to be added.
The aqueous solution is a solution with a quantity of water in it, e.g is that of salt in water.
A concentrated solution is a solution with large amounts of solute in a given quantity of solvent example orange juice. It is otherwise referred to as a solution containing a maximum amount of solute that can be solved in a solvent. Since solubility is dependent on temperature, a solution that is concentrated at a particular defined temperature may not be concentrated at a higher temperature.
An Isotonic solution is a solution that contains the same concentration of solute in it. As such water, These solutions have the same concentration of the solute in it. Therefore, water moves across the cell solvent travel across the cell from the solution in both directions in the beaker.
This is a type of solution that still allows for the addition of more solute at a defined temperature. Here, the concentration of solute is lower than equilibrium solubility, as such all the solute dissolves completely without leaving crystals.
• 0.01M hydrochloric acid is an unsaturated solution of hydrochloric acid in water
• Mist is an unsaturated (but close to saturated) solution of water vapour in the air.
• Adding a spoonful of sugar to a cup of hot coffee produces an unsaturated sugar solution.
• Vinegar is an unsaturated solution of acetic acid in water.
A Dilute solution is a solution in which a concentration of solute is decreased through the addition of more solvent without further addition of solute and then mixed thoroughly so as not to leave any traces of solute, making the all part of the solution to look the same or identical.
Hypertonic solution is a solution which has a high contraction of solutes than another solution. A perfect example of Hypertonic solution is the cell membrane in the plant where the solute concentration In relation to another solution on the opposite side of a cell membrane is termed tonicity.
When plant cells are in Hypertonic solution, the cell membrane which is flexible in nature pulls away from the cell wall which is rigid in nature. This is where the cells appear as pincushion resulting in the near malfunctioning of the plasmodesmata due to constriction.
In this type of solution, the solutes are of lower concentration than another lower solution compared to that of hypertonic solution. In a biological point of view, the solution on the external part of a cell is referred to as Hypotonic solution.