Ecosystem – Definition, 2 Components, Types, and Example Of Ecosystem 


Ecosystem – Definition, 2 Components, Types, and Example Of Ecosystem 

The natural world contains diverse habitats inhabited by a wide range of organisms. These habitats, also known as ecosystems, will be thoroughly examined in this blog, covering various aspects of their functioning and characteristics.

Ecosystem Definition

An ecosystem is a functioning system composed of living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components. The biotic components encompass all living organisms, while the abiotic components comprise non-living elements. Therefore, the scientific definition of an ecosystem involves an ecological community composed of various populations of organisms coexisting in a specific habitat.

In biology, an ecosystem is considered the fundamental unit of nature. Like a living organism comprises cells that serve as the structural and functional units of life, nature is composed of fundamental ecosystems.

Ecosystem Components

Here are the components of the ecosystem

1. Biotic components

The biotic components of an ecosystem encompass all organisms, which can be classified into two primary types: eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Eukaryotes are characterized by membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus, within their cells. Examples of eukaryotes include plants, animals, fungi, and protists. On the other hand, prokaryotes lack membrane-bound organelles. Bacteria and archaea are examples of prokaryotes.

2.  Abiotic components

The non-living elements within an ecosystem, known as the abiotic components, encompass various entities such as rocks, soil, minerals, water sources, and the local atmosphere. Similar to the biotic components, these abiotic elements also play an ecological role. For instance, environmental elements and compounds serve as sources of nutrients vital for organisms’ growth and metabolism. Additionally, these abiotic components provide organisms with a habitat to reside and flourish, serving as both a nutrient source and a suitable living environment.

Types of Ecosystems

Here are the four types of ecosystems

1. Terrestrial ecosystem

The terrestrial ecosystem on land encompasses various types, such as forest, grassland, tundra, and desert ecosystems.

A forest ecosystem thrives with diverse plants, particularly trees, which serve as primary producers. This rich plant life supports a wide range of animal species. Forests also provide valuable resources, such as fruits and wood, while contributing to regulating the Earth’s temperature.

Grassland ecosystems are typically found in tropical or temperate regions and are characterized by the dominance of grasses. Grazing animals, including cattle, goats, and deer, are commonly found in these ecosystems, taking advantage of the abundant grasses as a food source.

Tundra ecosystems are defined by their treeless and snow-covered landscapes. Brief periods of snow melting during spring and summer create shallow ponds, allowing for the growth of lichens and flowering plants. Due to the ice-covered nature of the tundra, this ecosystem plays a crucial role in regulating the Earth’s temperature.

Desert ecosystems exist within arid and windy desert habitats, varying between dunes and rocky landscapes. While not as diverse as forest ecosystems, desert organisms possess unique adaptations that suit their environment. Common desert plants include CAM plants like cacti, while desert animals consist of insects, reptiles, and birds.

2. Freshwater ecosystems

Freshwater ecosystems are aquatic ecosystems that do not contain salt water. They provide a habitat for organisms such as algae, plankton, insects, amphibians, and fish. There are two primary types of freshwater ecosystems: lentic and lotic ecosystems.

A lentic ecosystem refers to ecosystems found in still or standing waters. Examples include ponds, puddles, and lakes. Lakes, in particular, often exhibit zonation, where distinct zones are formed. These zones include the littoral, limnetic, and profundal zones.

The littoral zone is located near the shore and allows light to penetrate to the bottom. The limnetic zone, on the other hand, is deeper and receives less light. Within the limnetic zone, the photic zone is where light can penetrate, while the benthic zone is dark and lacks light penetration.

The distribution of plants and animals varies across these zones. For instance, rooted plants are commonly found in the littoral zone but not in the limnetic zone, where freely-floating plants are more prevalent on the water’s surface.

3. Marine ecosystem

A marine ecosystem is an aquatic ecosystem that consists of saltwater. These ecosystems encompass various habitats found in seas and oceans. Ocean ecosystems, in particular, play a crucial role in providing atmospheric oxygen. This is mainly attributed to the extensive population of autotrophic algae, which release oxygen through photosynthesis. Marine ecosystems are widely recognized as the most abundant ecosystem on our planet.

4. Artificial ecosystem

An artificial ecosystem is a system that has been created by humans and can be categorised as terrestrial, freshwater, or marine. A terrarium is an illustration of an artificial ecosystem. For the sake of studying biology and ecology, conservation, and aesthetics, many man-made habitats are constructed.

Examples of Ecosystem

The following are examples of ecosystem

1. Deciduous forest ecosystem

A deciduous forest is characterized by trees that undergo a seasonal process of shedding their leaves and regrowing them during the new growing season. This leaf-shedding adaptation responds to the cold seasons in temperate regions or the dry seasons in subtropical and tropical regions.

In mid-latitude regions, the dominant trees in deciduous forests include oaks, beeches, birches, chestnuts, aspens, elms, maples, and basswood. In the Southern Hemisphere, the dominant tree genus is Nothofagus, also known as Southern beeches. Various animals can be commonly found in deciduous forests, including snakes, frogs, salamanders, turtles, snails, slugs, insects, spiders, birds (such as warblers, owls, woodpeckers, hawks, and others), as well as mammals (such as mice, moles, chipmunks, rabbits, weasels, foxes, and deer).

Deciduous forest ecosystem

2. Savannah ecosystem

Savannahs represent a combination of woodland and grassland ecosystems. The presence of widely spaced canopy trees enables sunlight to penetrate and reach the ground, fostering the growth of abundant shrubs and herbaceous layers dominated by grasses.

As a result, grazers such as sheep, cattle, and goats are commonly found in this ecosystem, utilizing ample vegetation as a food source. Savannahs often act as transitional zones between forested areas and deserts or grasslands.

Savannah ecosystem

3. Coral reef ecosystem

Coral reefs are ecosystems formed by colonies of reef-building corals, composed of interconnected coral polyps. These vibrant and diverse ecosystems are often called the “rainforests of the sea” due to their immense biodiversity.

Coral reefs are primarily found in tropical waters at shallow depths. They provide habitats for various species, including molluscs, worms, crustaceans, echinoderms, sponges, tunicates, and fish.

4. Hot spring ecosystem

A hot spring is a natural spring with a significantly higher water temperature than the surrounding environment. The heat in the water originates from geothermal sources, meaning the Earth’s mantle heats it. Due to the high temperatures, hot springs are characterized by having a limited number of organisms.

However, certain extremophile organisms called thermophiles can thrive in these environments, tolerating temperatures ranging from 45 to 80°C (113 to 176°F). Examples of thermophilic organisms in hot springs include thermophilic amoebas such as Naegleria fowleri and Acanthamoeba, thermophilic bacteria like Legionella, and various archaea.

Hot spring ecosystem

Jael Okwuchukwu
Jael Okwuchukwu
I am Okwuchukwu Jael, a writer, educator, and musician from Enugu State. Teaching, both academic and musical, is a passion of mine, and I specialize as a Western pianist. Currently, I am employed as a blogger at Writer's King LTD, combining my love for writing and desire to share knowledge with a broader audience.


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