Programming Languages – Top 9 Programming Languages for Internet of Things (IoT) Development
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“Numerous developers are constantly enhancing their skills to remain up-to-date and secure their professional prospects, giving them an advantage over their competitors. If you aspire to succeed in the IoT app development industry, it is important for you, as a developer, to have knowledge of multiple programming languages.
As the IoT progresses, the task of identifying the most suitable technologies for different projects may become more intricate. Likewise, gauging the popularity of programming languages without understanding the specific requirements can pose challenges.”
Java stands out as the predominant programming language for developing IoT applications. In 2019, it held the top spot as the most widely adopted programming language, accounting for an impressive 16.61% overall score. The influence of Java is further underscored by its usage in powering nearly three billion devices.
The popularity of Java can be attributed, in part, to its “write once, run anywhere” capability. This means that developers can write their software code once and deploy it on any device that supports Java, eliminating the need for extensive modifications or adaptations.
Moreover, due to its object-oriented nature, Java enables the creation of programs for both cloud and edge nodes. This makes it an ideal programming language for IoT development, as it offers extensible functionalities and a vast array of libraries.
Java SE Embedded expands the possibilities by allowing developers to deploy code to highly compact computing devices and offers more advanced features compared to Java ME (Micro Edition). By leveraging the latest capabilities of the Java 8 platform, developers can seamlessly transfer code to miniature embedded cards.
2. C Programming Language
This programming language is well-known among all contemporary developers. Its popularity stems from its user-friendly nature. Despite its occasionally intricate syntax and potential for errors, the C language continues to be the preferred choice for numerous low-level engineers, especially those with previous hardware expertise.
The language offers the flexibility to conduct multiple tests by modifying different sections of the code, enabling developers to achieve optimal performance on low-end devices. Every element in the stack can be reversed, and values in the stack can be accessed individually. However, due to the absence of numerous safety measures in the C language, it is advisable to minimize errors and mistakes.
For many Chief Technology Officers (CTOs), C is the preferred language for devices with limited resources, such as a basic task scheduler coded in C. Additionally, C is utilized in more sophisticated and larger-scale devices. However, in such scenarios, Java is gaining popularity as an alternative choice.
3. C ++
If there is a distinct advantage that sets C++ apart from C, it lies in its computational capabilities. As a result, C++ serves as an excellent catalyst for preprocessing C code. By augmenting the processing power of C, C++ enables the execution of higher-level languages. However, it should be noted that C++ is a more intricate language that presents multiple opportunities for errors. Nevertheless, it remains a favoured choice among programmers.
C++ excels in the realm of Linux applications and embedded programming due to its capability to establish abstractions and object layers. It offers robust support for integrating with various other languages like C#, Python, Java, and more.
Python is widely adopted as a popular programming language for IoT product development, primarily due to its straightforward syntax and ease of understanding. As an interpreted language, Python seamlessly integrates with object-oriented, structured, and functional programming paradigms.
Developers have the flexibility to choose their preferred language for small devices that possess ample memory and processing capabilities, and Python has gained significant popularity in this context. Its suitability for IoT programming lies in its simplicity, making it easy to learn, and its extensive community support.
Additionally, Python finds extensive application in various domains, including administrative tasks, and is commonly used as a programming language for educational purposes in schools. For relatively straightforward projects that do not require significant computational power, valuable tools can be developed using the same libraries utilized in educational settings.
Moreover, specific Python versions are specifically designed for smaller devices. An example of such is MicroPython, which is a compact microcontroller capable of running Python directly on hardware without an additional operating system. It offers a low-level operating system that facilitates control over a diverse range of electronic projects.
This language serves as the foundation for all the programs that enable interaction with the Internet. Although it is not typically classified as a conventional programming language, this scripting language is utilized by HTML programs, web applications, and browsers.
Among the languages mentioned earlier, Swift distinguishes itself in a unique way. While the other programming languages can be utilized for developing IoT applications across different platforms such as websites, smartphones, and various devices, Swift is specifically designed for creating IoT apps exclusively for iOS devices.
Swift adheres to Apple’s design principles, enabling developers to build IoT applications that meet Apple’s stringent standards. It boasts qualities such as speed, safety, and a reduced likelihood of errors, along with a wide array of programming patterns at developers’ disposal.
For those solely targeting iOS devices in their IoT application development endeavours, this programming language stands as the optimal choice. It is widely regarded as one of the easiest programming languages to learn, thanks to its straightforward syntax and ease of writing. As Swift continues to gain popularity, ambitious IoT developers are encouraged to adopt it without delay.
When we contemplate the enduring popularity of PHP on the internet, it leads us to question why it remains a popular choice for IoT development. Nevertheless, PHP excels as a server language for managing microservices.
Interestingly, PHP continues to garner considerable attention in the IoT domain. Many Raspberry Pi developers are actively exploring the development of a comprehensive LAMP stack on Linux, consisting of Apache, MySQL, and PHP. Their goal is to transform the lowest level of the internet into a fully functional web server, aiming to shift paradigms and expand PHP’s role in IoT applications.
Streamlining development becomes easier by considering the establishment of a LAMP stack on a Raspberry Pi with sufficient processing capacity. This approach enables the seamless deployment of all the server-side code that has been developed over the past two decades onto a small sensor device.
Certainly, there is a general agreement regarding the leading programming languages for IoT, although each of them brings its own distinct advantages and applications. Java, recognized as the most prevalent language for IoT programming, offers versatility by being applicable in diverse contexts, including backend systems, and mobile applications, as well as serving as a foundation for gateways and cloud computing.
The C programming language holds significant importance in the realm of embedded IoT devices, while C++ emerges as a favoured option for more advanced Linux implementations. Python, on the other hand, shines as an excellent choice for data-intensive applications.