Sports – types and activities I
Sport is defined as an activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or a team competes against another or others for entertainment (Oxford advanced learners dictionary).
Sporting activities are usually of an organized nature; having set down rules and regulations. There are many types of sports usually classified as either track or field events; some of them include:
- Table tennis
- Lawn tennis
In football, there are two opposing teams consisting of eleven (11) players each; ten players and a goalkeeper. Each of these players occupies a certain part of the field and plays a definitive role in the game.
The aim of each team is to get the ball by foot into the goal post of the opposing team; the goalkeeper of each team tries to prevent this from happening by trapping the ball before it gets into the net.
Just like football, there are two opposing teams in handball; each team consisting of six players and one goalkeeper, a total of seven members per team.
The goal of each team is to get the ball by the hand into the goal post of the opposing team. It is prohibited to use the feet in handball.
This is also a field event that involves two players most of the time. The players use a racket (commonly called a bat) to hit the small, lightweight ball over to each other’s part of the table; the table makes it possible for the ball to bounce before being hit.
The aim is to get the ball across the midline of the table successfully and to ensure that the ball doesn’t hit the floor in one’s space of play.
Just like the name defines it, this game is played in an open field that is demarcated in the middle. Although the ball used here is larger and heavier as compared to that of table tennis, it is made in such a way that it can bounce on the floor, and move freely in the air.
The aim is the same as in table tennis; each player prevents the ball from getting out of the line in his or her sphere of play.
Running is a track event that usually involves speed, endurance or both. Running involves covering a certain distance over a period of time and the winner is determined based on who can cover a particular distance within the shortest possible period of time. It is classified into three depending on the distance to be covered
- Long-distance races
Here, an athlete is required to have enough endurance to be able to cover the required distance. Distances from 3000 metres and above are classified as long-distance races. It also involves marathon races, cross country, etc.
- Middle distance races
To complete a middle distance race, it is required that an athlete will have both speed and endurance. Distances below 3000 metres and above 400 metres are usually classified as middle-distance races.
Examples include; Races of 800 metres, 1200 metres.
- Short distance races
Athletes require a lot of speed in short distance races. Races like 100, 200, and 400-metre races are classified under here.
This is another field event common between both males and females. A discus is a flat and rounded mass; the female discus being lighter than that of the males.
The discus is held at the circumference by placing the palms over it and then thrown within a specified range. The distance from where the discus was thrown to where it landed is measured (provided the throw is a valid one) and the athlete with the longest throw after an average has been taken is made the winner.
A javelin is a long rod pointed at its both ends, with a band in the middle where it can be held. The aim is to throw the javelin to a distance where it lands with either of its ends touching the floor after running a short distance. If the javelin lands any other way, the throw is disqualified.
The distance from where the javelin was tossed to where it landed is measured, and the winner is determined as the person with the longest valid throws.