Examples of Long Bones
What are Long Bones?
Long bones are those bones mostly found in the appendicular skeleton. These bones especially those of the leg contribute to half of the human height.
Tibia and femur, which are two of the examples of long bones help in mobility and are also responsible for carrying most of the loads during our involvement in daily activities. These long bones grow in height by elongation if the shaft or diaphysis (that is the midsection of a long bone), together with the round end of the long bone called epiphysis.
The external part of the long bone contains periosteum (a layer of connective tissue), while the compact bone is the external shell of the long bone. This article discusses the different examples of long bones.
We are going to discuss seven examples of Long bones in this article.
- Femur: Femur (otherwise called thighbone) happens to be the strongest and longest bone in the human body.
It is very hard to break the femur because of its strong nature. The femoral shaft is that straight part of femur, while the femoral fracture is that break experienced by the femoral shaft and for it to heal one will have to undergo surgery. We have four types of femoral fractures.
a. Supracondylar Femur Fracture
The supracondylar fracture occurs when there is a break above the knee joint and usually occurs when the force is placed on the leg above the knee while holding the foot firmly to the ground.
b. Femoral Shaft Fracture
This type of fracture occurs when there is a break in the narrow part of the femur or middle of the bone. Because of how delicate this part of the femur is, it always requires that the fracture be treated in the operating room.
c. Distal Femur Fracture
Distal Femur fracture is a break at the top of the knee joint. This type of fracture can extend into the knee joint and disturb the cartilage and growth plate of the knee. A fracture in this area often requires surgical intervention to properly realign the bones.
d. Proximal femur fracture
This type of femoral fractures (hip fracture) is a break in the topmost part of the thighbone, next to the hip joint.
- Tibia: The tibia is one of the examples of a long bone, it is also referred to as shin bone or leg bone. It is also known as the weight carrying bone of the leg which makes it the second-largest bone after the thigh bone or femur. Tibia is also made of three parts just like other long bones, they are Distal, Proximal and Shaft. The distal part of the tibia articulates with the ankle joint, the proximal articulates with the knee joint, while the shaft provides surfaces for leg muscle attachment.
- Humerus: The humerus is an example of a long bone found in the upper arm, which articulates with the scapula, ulna and radius, which are two bones found in the lower arm. It also connects the shoulder and the elbow together. The humerus is divided into three parts namely; shaft, upper extremity, lower extremity.
- Radius and Ulna: These are examples of long bones, which runs from the elbow to the wrist, found in the forearm or lower arm. The radius is the side (lateral) bone while the ulna extends towards the middle (medial bone) of the forearm. The formation of these two bones aids in pronation (rotation of the forearm with the Palms facing down) and supination (rotation of the forearm so that the palms faces upwards). The radius and ulna also provide support for the twenty muscles of the forearm.
- Fibula: Fibula is a thin long bone parallel to the tibia which provides stability and balance for the ankle and muscles of the lower leg. The fibula is almost the same size as the tibia though it is thinner than the tibia. Just like the tibia carries the weight of the body, the fibula provides support for the tibia, while it bears the body’s weight.
- Clavicle: Also known as the collarbone, the clavicle is the only long bone in the human body that lies horizontally. It is about 15 centimetres long. We also have the right and left clavicle whose function is to provide prance between the breastbone or sternum, and the shoulder blade. It joins with the shoulder blade to firm the shoulder girdle. It creates a bump in the skin as it is visible and touchable.
- Metatarsus: Metatarsus, also known as metatarsal bones are also examples of long bones, situated between the tarsal bones of the mid-foot, hindfoot, and the phalanges of the toes. The length of these bones are described in descending other: second, third, fourth, fifth and first.
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