Computer system -The hardware and software of Components of the computer system


Computer system -The hardware and software of Components of the computer system

The computer is a very common device that is owned by almost everyone and this is due to the portability of modern-day Personal computers that are small and easy compared to the ancient ones where different parts were stored in separate compartments hence making it difficult to move.

With that being said, most of us know what a computer is but only a few know the components of a computer and the aim of this article is to shed more light on what a computer is made up of but before we continue, it is important to note that the computer is a collection of software and hardware components with the hardware being the visible part of the computer and the software being the part of the computer that cannot be seen or touched.


In the previous paragraph, we have established the two main components of a computer system and their definitions and in this section, we would further explain the hardware and software components and list the different hardware and software components of a computer.


The hardware component is that part of a computer can be defined as the physical equipment that makes up the computer and it can also be defined as that part of a computer that you can see, touch, and feel. The hardware components of a computer are classified into five (5) namely:

  • Input Devices: Input devices are hardware equipment’s that are used to provide data to the computer and according to Wikipedia, Input devices are categorized based on criteria’s like mode of input(mechanical motion, audio, and visual), discreteness, or continuity of the information, and the number of degree of freedom involved. Examples of Input devices include:
  1. Keyboard: The keyboard is one of the most used input devices that consists of different types of keys that are used for the encoding of data by depression which causes the generation of selected code. The types of keys one can find on a keyboard are grouped into five namely typewriter keys, Function keys, Cursor control keys, Numeric Keys, and Special keys. Finally, there are two types of keyboards namely enhanced keyboard (Keyboard with 12 function keys) and standard keyboard (Keyboard with 10 function keys)
  2. Mouse: A mouse is a point held device that
  3. Scanner: A scanner is an input device used for direct data input and it optically scans images, printed text, or any text in written form and converts it to digital data. There are various types of scanners that we would outline and they differ based on their usage and mode of operation. The types of scanners that are commonly used are Flatbed Scanner, Sheetfed Scanners, Hand Scanners, and Barcode readers with the Barcode readers being the most popular amongst all of them.
  4. Joystick: Joystick is a vertical stick that moves the graphic cursor in a direction the stick is moved and they are mostly used in playing video games. There are basically two types of joysticks namely isometric joystick and isotonic joystick
  • Central Processing Unit: The Central processing unit is one of the most important parts of every computer and it controls the entire operation of all other components of the computer hence the reason why it is also known as the central processor and the main processor. The Central Processing Unit performs basic arithmetic, logic, controlling, and Input/Output I/O operations specified by the instructions in the program. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) has cycles of operations and also has three major components namely Control Unit, Arithmetic and Logic Unit, and Memory Unit. The Control Unit determines the sequence in which computer programs and instructions are executed while the Arithmetic and Logic Unit performs the actual processing of data and the Memory unit holds instructions and data that are being processed by the Central Processing Unit (CPU).
  • Secondary Storage Unit: Secondary storage unit is any media that one can use to store data permanently. There are two types of memory in a computer system and are Primary storage unit and the secondary unit. The Secondary Unit is basically divided into two (2) namely Magnetic Tapes, and Magnetic disks.
  • Output Devices: Output devices are those devices used to communicate the results of processing carried out by the computer by the computer to the outside world. Output devices are the exact opposite of input devices and examples of output devices include plotters, speakers, VDUs, and printers.
  • Communication Devices: These are devices that are used to send and receive data and programs from one computer or secondary storage device to another. Before a communication device can be used, there must be a communication channel and examples of communication devices include Bluetooth devices, infrared devices, and modem (Modulator/Demodulator).

We did not list some things but it is important that our readers take note of these things because knowing the components of whatever device you are using is a very important thing.


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