Examples of Fossil Fuels
here are examples of fossil fuels
This type of fossil fuel is formed through the slow decomposition of land vegetation that becomes buried deep beneath sediment layers in the Earth’s crust. During the Carboniferous Period, extensive forests consisting of fern-like trees and leafy plants thrived in the Earth’s tropical regions.
Coal extraction involves various methods, such as open pit mining for shallow coal deposits near the surface and underground mining for deeper coal reserves. Once mined, the coal undergoes treatment to remove impurities and enhance its efficiency as an energy source. The purity of coal is determined by its carbon content, leading to different coal classifications.
The purest form of coal is anthracite, with a carbon content of 97%. Bituminous and sub-bituminous coal are the second and third purest forms, respectively. Lignite is the least pure form, closer to the Earth’s surface. As the purity increases, the depth of coal deposits generally increases, making extraction more challenging.
The mining and use of coal result in the release of harmful pollutants into the atmosphere. Mercury, a volatile element, is released during the mining process, while sulfur dioxide, a toxic gas and a significant contributor to acid rain, is emitted when coal is burned. Desulfurization techniques can help remove sulfur dioxide from the atmosphere. Nitrogen oxide, another pollutant, negatively impacts marine life by causing eutrophication, which depletes oxygen levels in water bodies.
Despite its environmental impact, coal remains a widely used energy source. It is the primary fuel for electricity generation, accounting for over 40% of energy production in the United States. Countries like China and the United States are major coal producers, with China being the largest producer at 45%. Coal was crucial in fueling the Industrial Revolution during the 19th century.
Coal, when heated, produces coke, which was historically used to generate high-temperature steam for powering steam trains and driving manufacturing processes. It is heavily relied upon by the iron and steel industry. Additionally, coal is used in households for basic heating and cooking purposes. Certain coal byproducts are also used in cosmetic applications, such as petroleum jelly production.
Oil has been derived from plant and animal decomposition over millions of years, specifically from marine microorganisms that perished long ago. It encompasses the remnants of ancient swampy forests and algae and sea creatures that were prevalent during that time. As these organisms died, their remains settled and mixed with sediments on the ocean floor.
Oil reserves, located at considerable depths, are extracted using large pumps that bring the crude oil to the surface. The less-dense nature of oil causes it to migrate upwards, facilitated by the pressure within the reservoir. Additionally, oil can be found in shale and tar sands, which are closer to the Earth’s surface.
Following extraction, the crude oil undergoes treatment in oil refineries, enabling various refined oil products to be produced. These include gasoline, diesel, kerosene, aviation fuel, lubricating oil, tar, and other petroleum-based products.
Oil offers higher energy output per unit of weight than coal, making it a preferred fuel source for transportation. It serves as the primary energy source for global transportation systems. The different derivatives of oil have a wide range of applications. For example, gasoline is primarily used to fuel cars, motorcycles, and aeroplanes.
Diesel, denser than gasoline, powers heavy-duty vehicles such as trucks, buses, diesel trains, generators, and ships. Kerosene is utilized for lighting purposes, typically in lamps. Other oil products find uses in areas such as pesticides, fertilizers, and plastics. Moreover, oil serves as a raw material in the pharmaceutical industry.
3. Natural Gas
This fossil fuel is created by applying intense heat and pressure to organic matter over an extended period. Due to this process, the molecular structure of the resulting fuel becomes fragmented, leading to the presence of natural gas, which primarily consists of gaseous hydrocarbons. It is believed to originate from the remains of marine microorganisms.
A substance called Kerogen is formed during the anaerobic decomposition of organic material, including plant and animal remains. With further heating, Kerogen transforms three different states. The initial state is solid, resulting in the formation of coal. Continued heating leads to the conversion of Kerogen into liquid form, known as crude oil, and ultimately into natural gas.
Natural gas mainly consists of gaseous hydrocarbons, with methane being the most common and highly flammable component. Like oil, natural gas is less dense than rock formations but is often trapped within them. However, unlike oil, natural gas cannot be extracted or trapped similarly. The final stage in the formation of this fuel is called catagenesis.
Natural gas finds application in cooking and can be used as a fuel source for vehicles in the form of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It also generates heat and electricity in residential, commercial, and industrial settings. Furthermore, natural gas is a raw material for producing various products, including fertilizers, paints, and plastics.